Developing a Marketplace for Smart Cities Foundational Services with Policy and Trust
This paper examines the issues of policy and trust in the context of IT infrastructures for Smart Cities. This paper proposes that trusted Smart city policies can lead to the development of a set of trusted foundational services underlying all smart city solutions. Such services are critical to ensure that the architectural choices used to drive efficient integration among data and service consumers and providers to use within smart city domains, and will lead to the development of a marketplace where service providers and consumers engage in a free and fully informed exchange to choose worthy and reliable experiences addressing everything from reporting street light outages to identifying economic advantages during city planning. It argues that two usually mutually exclusive architectural meta-models; Centralization and Federation, are both required to achieve a robust set of trusted foundational services. It reviews a scale of options for implementing the marketplace component of the foundational services to support a matrix of consuming scenarios from fully isolated well known analytics to the anonymous access that allows potential users to browse for services without any controls before requesting access. It concludes that Trusted Policies are highly important as successful ingredients in the development of foundational services during the developmental stage and in the operations and maintenance stages for integrated Smart city systems. It is critical that Smart cities systems implement city-wide policies and similarly policy driven marketplaces that improve and sustain trust and in turn help Smart cities manage the multitude of systems that are continuously both developmental and operational, and will be so for many decades to come.
https://aws.amazon.com/marketplace. Last accessed January 4 2015.
http://www.compucom.com/managed-services/end-user-enablement/application-marketplace-services. Last accessed January 4 2015.
http://www.hubspot.com/partners/sales/services-marketplace. Last accessed January 4 2015.
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/azure/hh873027.aspx. Last accessed January 4 2015.
https://websmp106.sap-ag.de/. Last accessed January 4 2015.
Standing, S., Standing C., and P. E. D Love. A review of research on e-marketplaces 1997–2008, Decision Support Systems, April 2001, vol. 49, no 1, pp. 41–51.
Chourabi, Hafedh, Taewoo Nam, Walker, Shawn, Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon, Mellouli, Sehl, Nahon, Karine, Pardo, Theresa A., Scholl, Hans Jochen. Understanding smart cities: an integrative framework, Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2012, pp. 2287-2299.
Smart cities citizen innovation in smart cities, baseline study. URBACT II, June 2012, www.urbact.eu.
Hall, R. E. The vision of a smart city. Proceedings of the 2nd international life extension technology workshop. September 28, 2000. Paris, France, from http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/773961- oyxp82/webviewable/773961.pdf.
Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., & Williams, P. Foundations for smarter cities. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 2010, 54 (4).
Toppeta, D. The smart city vision: how innovation and ICT can build smart, “livable”, sustainable cities. The Innovation Knowledge Foundation. 2010. http://www.thinkinnovation.org/file/research/23/en/Top peta_Report_005_2010.pdf.
Washburn, D., Sindhu, U., Balaouras, S., Dines, R. A., Hayes, N. M., & Nelson, L. E. Helping CIOs understand "smart city" initiatives: defining the smart city, its drivers, and the role of the CIO. Cambridge, MA: Forrester Research, Inc. 2010, http://public.dhe.ibm.com/parterworld/pub/smb/smarterplanet/forr_help_cios_und_smart_city_initiatives.pdf.
Gil-García, J. R., & Pardo, T. A. E-government success factors: mapping practical tools to theoretical foundations. Government Information Quarterly, 2005, 22 (2), pp. 187-216.
Hollands, R.G. Will the real smart city please stand up? City, 2008, 12 (3), 303-320.
Ebrahim, Z., & Irani, Z. E-government adoption: architecture and barriers. Business Process Management Journal, 2005, 11 (5), pp. 589-611.
Giffinger, R., Fertner, C., Kramar, H., Kalasek, R., Pichler-Milanović, N., & Meijers, E. Smart cities: ranking of European medium-sized cities. Vienna, Austria: Centre of Regional Science (SRF), Vienna University of Technology, 2007, http://www.smart- cities.eu/download/smart_cities_final_report.pdf.
Al-Hader, M., & Rodzi, A. The smart city infrastructure development & monitoring. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 2009, 4 (2), pp. 87-94.
Al-Hader, M., Rodzi, A., Sharif, A.R., & Ahmad, N. Smart city components architecture. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation, Brno, Czech Republic, September 7 - 9, 2009, pp. 93-97.
Al-Hader, M., Rodzi, A., Sharif, A.R., & Ahmad, N. SOA of smart city geospatial management. Proceedings of the 3rd UKSim European Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation, Athens, Greece, November 25 - 27, 2009.
Anthopoulos, L., and Fitsilis, P. From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 19-21. 2010, pp. 301-306.
Anthopoulos, L., & Fitsilis, P. From online to ubiquitous cities: the technical transformation of virtual communities. In Sideridis, A. B., & Patrikakis, C. Z. (Eds.), Next Generation Society: Technological and Legal Issues, 2010, Vol. 26, pp. 360-372. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g644776482968k36/fulltext.pdf.
Batty, M. Editorial. Smart cities, big data. . Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2012, vol.39, pp. 191 – 193.
Benouaret, Karim, Valliyur-Ramalingam, Raman, and Charoy, Francis. CrowdSC: building smart cities with large-scale citizen participation. IEEE Internet Computing. November/December 2013, vol 17, no. 06, pp: 57 -63.
Celino, Irene, and Spyros Kotoulas. Smart Cities. IEEE Internet Computing, November/December 2013, vol 17, no. 6, pp. 8-11.
Velosa, Alfonso, Nagayoshi Nakano, Tratz-Ryan, Bettina, Steenstrup, Kristian, and Perkins, Earl. Predicts 2014: smart city security, infrastructure and business issues remain critical. Gartner, Inc., 5 December 2013.
Yoshikawa, Yoshihito, Sato, Atsutoshi , Hirasawa, Shigeki Takahashi, Masato, and Yamamoto, Mayuko. Hitachi’s vision of the smart city. Hitachi Review, 2012, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 111-118.
Dohler, Mischa, Ratti Carlo, Paraszczak, Jurij, and Falconer, Gordon. Smart cities. IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2013, pp. 70-71.
Sauer, Sabrina. Do smart cities produce smart entrepreneurs? Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 2012, vol. 7 (3), pp. 63-73.
Velosa, Alfonso, and Mok, Lily. The internet of things challenges smart city processes and culture. Gartner, Inc. 7 November 2013. pp. 1-11.
Hosmer, L. T. Trust: the connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 1995. Vol. 20:2), pp. 379-403.
Mishra, J., and Morrissey, M. A. Trust in employee/employer relationships: a survey of West Michigan managers. Public Personnel Management, 1990, vol. 19, pp. 443-485.
Morgan, R, M., and Hunt, S. D. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing (58), July 1994, pp, 20-38.
Fukuyama, F. Trust: the Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, The Free Press, New York, 1996.
Hasnain, Eisha, and Hall, Tracy. Introduction to stand-up meetings in agile methods. CP1127, IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies II: Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, 2009, pp. 110-120.
Gefen, David, Karahanna, Elama, and Straub, Delmar, W. Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Quarterly, March 2003, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 51-90.
Smith, H. J., Keil, M., and Depledge, G. Keeping mum as the project goes under: towards an explanatory model, Journal of Management Information Systems, 2001, vol.18:2, pp. 189-227.
Iacovou, Charalambos L., Thompson, Ronald L., Smith, H. Jeff, Selective status reporting in information systems projects: a dyadic-level investigation. MIS Quarterly, 2009, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 785-810.
Alaa, Ghada. Derivation of factors facilitating organizational emergence based on complex adaptive systems and social autopoiesis theories. Emergence: Complexity & Organization, 2009, vol. 11:1, 2009, pp.19-34.
Bakos. J. Yannis. Reducing buyer search costs: implications for electronic marketplaces. Management Science, 1997. Vol. 43, no. 12. Pp. 1676-1692.
Pavlou, Paul A. and Gefen, David. Building effective online marketplaces with institution-based trust, Information Systems Research, March 2004, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 37-59
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.